灿烂的青铜文明

灿烂的青铜文明
Brilliant Bronze Civilization


青铜文明是以使用青铜器为标志的人类文化发展的一个阶段。
Bronze civilizations represented a stage of the development of human cultures marked by the use of bronze wares.
青铜是铜、锡、铅的合金,因为颜色青灰,故名青铜。
Bronze is the alloy of copper, tin and lead. Yellowish-brown in color, it was hence named qingtong (in Chinese language).
4700 年前,中国的青铜时代开始出现,跨越了夏、商、西周和春秋战国时代。
The bronze age of China emerged 4,700 years ago, spanning the four eras of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty, the Western Zhou Dynasty, and the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods.
商朝的青铜器制造很发达,河南安阳出土的商朝后期制造的后母戊鼎(dǐnɡ),腹部铸“后母戊”三字。鼎高1.33 米,长1.1 米,宽0.78 米,重832.84 千克,是迄今为止发现的最大的出土青铜器。另一件青铜器“四羊方尊”,造型雄奇,工艺高超,是商朝青铜器中的精品。
The manufacture of bronze wares was well developed during the Shang Dynasty. The Houmuwu Square Cauldron, made in the late Shang Dynasty, and unearthed in Anyang, Henan, has three Chinese characters—"Hou Mu Wu"—on one side. The cauldron is 1.33 meters high, 1.1 meters long, 0.78 meters wide, and 832.84 kg in weight; it is the biggest bronze ware artifact in the world. A wine vessel featuring casting heads of four goats, also dating from the Shang Dynasty, is one of the finest examples of bronze wares.
先秦时期,青铜还被用来制造乐器。春秋战国时期,盛行“钟鼓之乐”(一种以编钟与鼓为主要乐器所演奏的音乐)。1978 年在湖北随州曾侯乙墓出土的大量文物中,以整套编钟最为珍贵。编钟共有64 件,以大小和音高为序组成8 组,悬挂在铜木结构的三层钟架上。整套编钟音律准确,音色优美,音域宽广,它在地下埋藏了2000多年,今天依然能用来演奏音乐。
During the pre-Qin period, bronze was also used to make musical instruments. In the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, the"music of chimes and drums"was popular at court and religious ceremonies. In 1978, a complete set of chimes was excavated from the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Suizhou, Hubei Province. A total of 64 chimes were divided into eight groups in accordance to their different sizes and pitches, hung on a three-layer stand of bronze and wood. The chimes have beautiful timbre and wide range, and can still be played despite being buried for over 2,000 years.
与商周同期,中国西南地区的成都平原也盛行一种独特的青铜文化——三星堆文化。那里出土的青铜面具、青铜立人像、青铜神树等,引起了广泛瞩目。
During the time of the Shang and Zhou dynasties, there prevailed a unique bronze culture in the Chengdu Plain in southwest China — the Sanxingdui Culture. The bronze masks, bronze standing human figures, bronze sacred trees excavated there have attracted wide attention.
中国青铜器制作精美,极具艺术价值,代表着中国先秦时期高超的技术与文化。现今大多数欧美国家的博物馆都藏有中国青铜器。
The bronze wares of China were exquisite and had high artistic value, showcasing the advanced techniques and culture of China duringits pre-Qin period. Now, museums in most European countries and the U.S. house bronze wares from China.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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