春秋五霸

春秋五霸
Five Hegemonic Vassals of the Spring and Autumn Period


春秋初年有100 多个诸侯国,各诸侯国为了争夺土地和人口,发生混战。力量强大的诸侯国不断吞并弱小的国家,争夺霸权。春秋时期先后起来争当霸主的有齐桓(huán)公、宋襄(xiānɡ)公、晋文公、秦穆(mù)公、楚庄王,历史上称为“春秋五霸”。还有一种说法,“春秋五霸”指齐桓公、晋文公、楚庄王、吴王阖闾(Hélǘ)、越王勾践(Gōujiàn)。
In the early Spring and Autumn Period, there existed over 100 vassal states, all squabbling over lands and populations. Strong states annexed weak ones and contended for hegemony over all the others. During this period, Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Xiang of Song, Duke Wen of Jin, Duke Mu of Qin and King Zhuang of Chu became hegemonic powers in succession, and were historically referred to as the "Five Powers of the Spring and Autumn Period." Some other historians rank the "five powers" as Duke Huan of Qi, Duke Wen of Jin, King Zhuang of Chu, King Helü of Wu and King Goujian of Yue.
齐国是春秋时期东方一个富裕的国家。齐桓公在大政治家管仲的辅佐下,在政治上和经济上进行了一系列改革,发展生产,使齐国强大起来。齐桓公率兵击退山戎(rónɡ)等少数民族的进攻,又率领齐、鲁、宋等八国的军队讨伐南方的楚国,阻止了楚军的北进,威信大增。公元前651 年,齐桓公召集各诸侯国订立盟约, 周天子也派人参加, 齐国称霸中原的时代开始了。
Qi was a rich state in the orient during the Spring and Autumn Period. With the aid of the able statesman Guan Zhong, Duke Huan of Qi carried out a series of political and economic reforms, which helped the state flourish and greatly enhanced its military power. Duke Huan commanded his troops to fight off the attacks by Shanrong and other ethnic groups, and led the armies of eight vassal states, including Qi, Lu and Song, to crusade against the State of Chu in the south and prevented it from aggressive expansion northwards. In this way, he gained enormous prestige. In 651 BC, Duke Huan convened a meeting of the rulers of all the states, at which envoys sent by the Son of Heaven of Zhou were also present. A treaty of alliance was concluded, and the hegemonic period of Qi commenced.
齐桓公之后,宋襄公一心想接替齐桓公做霸主,但没有成功。晋文公做了国君以后采取了一系列措施,很快使晋国成为北方一大强国。当时南方的楚国也想称霸。公元前632 年,晋国和楚国进行了一场大战,楚军大败,晋国从此成为中原的一大霸主。晋楚之间的争霸持续了100 多年,后来楚庄王大败晋军,做了中原的霸主。秦穆公本来也打算向东发展,到中原去做霸主,但没能成功,转而向西扩大地盘,独自称霸西方。
Duke Xiang of Song attempted to supersede Duke Huan's hegemony, but his efforts were made in vain. Duke Wen of Jin adopted a series of effective measures after he was enthroned, and the State of Jin soon became a powerful state in the north. The State of Chu in the south also attempted a hegemonic position. In 632 BC, the State of Jin defeated the State of Chu in a bloody war, and the army of the State of Chu was heavily defeated. From then on, the State of Jin began to rule over the Middle Plains. The fight for hegemony went on between the two states for 100 years, until King Zhuang of Chu smashed the Jin army and made himself the hegemonic power. In the meantime, Duke Mu of Qin had also attempted to expand his territory eastwards and exert a hegemonic influence over the Middle Plains. After his failure, he turned to enlarge his territory to the west and enjoyed an exclusive hegemonic position there.
吴国和越国都是长江下游的国家。这两个国家都不大,但也加入了争霸战争。晋楚争霸时,吴国在晋国的支持下曾经攻破楚国的都城。后来吴越两国进行了多次战争,各有胜负。公元前494 年,吴王夫差大败越国,越国成为吴国的属国。越王勾践经过10 年的艰苦准备,终于灭掉吴国。后来勾践又率军北上,成为春秋时期最后一个霸主。
Both the State of Yue and the State of Wu were located on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Despite their small sizes, the two states had also taken part in the war for hegemony. In the course in which the State of Jin and the State of Chu contended for hegemony, the State of Wu, with the support of the State of Jin, once captured the capital city of the State of Chu. Afterwards, both the State of Wu and the State of Yue waged wars between each other many times, alternately defeating one another.In 494 BC, Fuchai, king of the State of Wu, defeated the State of Yue heavily, and the State of Yue thus became a vassal state of the State of Wu. After a decade of painstaking preparation, Goujian, a king of Yue, destroyed the State of Wu. Later, Goujian led his army to proceed northward, and made himself the last hegemony of the Spring and Autumn Period.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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