大禹治水

大禹治水
Yu the Great's Harnessing the Flood



大禹(Yǔ)是传说中夏后氏部落的首领,原称“禹”,也称“夏禹”。传说尧的时候,黄河发大水,洪水冲毁了村庄和房屋,人们只能住到树上和山顶上。洪水给人们带来了极大的灾害。那时,炎黄部落联盟的首领尧任用鲧(Gǔn)治理洪水,鲧采用筑堤堵水的办法治水,没能成功。尧之后,担任部落联盟首领的舜杀死了鲧,然后命令鲧的儿子禹继续治水。禹吸取了鲧的教训,改用疏导的方法治水,让洪水顺着河道流向大海。禹辛勤地工作,传说他在治水的13年中,三次经过家门都没有时间进去看看。最后,禹终于制服了水患。人们感谢禹,尊称他为“大禹”。
Yu the Great was the chieftain of the legendary Xiahou clan. He was originally called Yu or Xiayu. According to legend, the Yellow River flooded during the reign of Yao, and the people were forced to abandon their villages, and moved to higher ground. The aftermath of the flood brought great misery to the people. Yao, the chieftain of the Yan-Huang tribal alliance, appointed Gun to harness the flood's power. Gun built dykes to keep back the water, but failed. Shun, who succeeded Yao, executed Gun, and appointed Gun's son, Yu, to continue with the flood-harnessing efforts. Yu adopted a dredging method to divert the floodwaters along river courses into the sea. Yu worked very hard, and it was said that during the 13 years he spent taming the floods, he passed his home three times, but did not enter until his task was completed. As a result of his successful efforts, the people called him"Yu the Great"to show their respect.
由于禹治水成功,得到舜的禅(shàn)让,被推举为继承人。舜死后,禹便成为部落联盟的首领。
Due to his achievement in harnessing the floods, he was chosen as the successor of Shun by the latter, with the approval of other tribal chieftains. After Shun's death, Yu became the head of the tribal alliance.
那时洪水刚刚平定,草木茂盛,野兽危害人民,禹派人教百姓开辟耕地,还派人教导人民耕种田地,收获粮食,于是人民的生活渐渐安定下来。禹又对苗族发动战争,阻止他们进入黄河流域,巩固了华夏族在中原地区的地位。
Following the taming of the floods, vegetation and wild beasts grew wantonly and threatened the survival of the people. Yu taught his subjects the art of agriculture, and the people then settled down and learned to feed themselves in a consistent and organized way. He also waged wars against the Miao tribes, prevented them from entering the Yellow River reaches, and consolidated the Huaxia people's supremacy in the Middle Plains.
禹在世时,部落联盟首领的权力大大加强了。后来禹死了,他的儿子启排斥伯益,自行继承禹的位置,引起了有扈(hù)氏部落的反抗。打败了有扈氏以后,启的地位得到了各部落的承认。从此世袭制代替了禅让制。启建立的夏朝,是中国历史上第一个王朝。夏朝历经400 多年,最后一个王叫桀(Jié),他是个暴君,政权非常腐朽。那时黄河下游的商部落强大起来,起兵灭夏,大约在公元前1600 年建立了商朝。
In Yu's time, chieftains of the tribal alliance had greatly strengthened their authority. After Yu's death, his son Qi succeeded to the throne on his own by supplanting Boyi, and thus encountered a revolt by the Youhu tribe. Qi crushed the Youhu tribe's attempt to overthrow him, and all tribes accepted his position. Hence, a hereditary system replaced that reliant on the demise of the throne. The Xia Dynasty that Qi established was the first dynasty in the history of China, and it lasted for over 400 years. Its last king, Jie, was a tyrant, who led a brutal regime. At that time, a tribe called Shang in the lower reaches of the Yellow River gradually grew to become powerful enough to wage war against the Xia and destroy it, thereby establishing the Shang Dynasty in around 1,600 BC.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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