《甘石星经》

《甘石星经》
Ganshi Classic of the Constellations
中国人很早就注意观察天象。古书上关于夏朝时流星雨和日食的记载,是世界天文史上最早的记录。春秋战国时期,天文学已取得了相当高的成就。鲁国的天文学家在对星象的观测中,观测到37 次日食,其中33 次已被证明是可靠的。
The Chinese people have paid great attention to astronomical phenomena since very early times. Meteor showers and solar eclipses from as far back as the Xia Dynasty are recorded in ancient books, and are thought to be the earliest astronomical accounts. By the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, astronomy had reached quite a high level of sophistication. Astronomers of the State of Lu observed 37 solar eclipses, among which 33 have been proved accurate.
这一时期还出现了天文学专著,齐国人甘德著《天文星占》八卷,魏国人石申写了《天文》八卷,后人将它们合为一部,称《甘石星经》。这是世界上现存最早的天文学著作。书中记录了水、木、金、火、土五大行星的运行情况,以及它们的出没规律。还记录了800 个恒星的名字,有121 个的位置现在已经被测定。甘德还用肉眼发现了木星的卫星,比意大利天文学家伽利略在1609 年用天文望远镜发现该星早2000 多年。石申则发现日月食是天体相互掩盖的现象,这在当时也是难能可贵的。为了纪念石申,月球上有一座环形山就是用他的名字命名的。
During this period there also appeared specialized works on astronomy. Gan De of the State of Qi wrote a work entitled Astronomy and Astrology in eight volumes, and Shi Shen of the State of Wei wrote his Astronomy , also in eight volumes. Later, the two works were combined as the Ganshi Classic of the Constellations. The earliest astronomical work extant in the world, this book records the motions of Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Saturn. Also, it records the names of 800 stars, the positions of 121 of which have been ascertained. Gan De discovered Jupiter's satellite with the naked eye, 2,000 years earlier than the Italian astronomer Galileo, who discovered it with an astronomical telescope in 1609. Shi Shen discovered the reason why solar and lunar eclipses occur. A crater on the moon has since been named after him.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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