古代中国

古代中国
Ancient China

中国是一个有着悠久历史文明的国家。
China is a country with a very long history.
大约在170 万年以前,在中国云南元谋县境内就有中国人的祖先在生活。此后,经过长时间不断地进化,产生了不同时期的原始人和氏族部落。大约在公元前2070 年,中国第一个王朝夏朝建立,这是中国最早的奴隶制国家。夏之后的商朝是当时世界上的一个大国,统治时间长达500 多年,留下了甲骨文、青铜器等许多极其珍贵的史料和文物。西周时期国家实行分封制,诸侯林立,中国开始进入封建社会。这一时期,也是中国历史上大变革的时代。社会大变革促进了文化的繁荣,以孔子、老子、墨子等大思想家为代表的诸子百家涌现,出现了百家争鸣的局面。公元前221 年,秦灭六国,统一中国。但因为统治不力,加上暴政,很快被汉朝取代。
The ancestors of the Chinese people began to settle down in present-day Yuanmou County, Yunnan Province, about 1,700,000 years ago. Later, throughout a long process of constant evolvement, primitive people and tribes emerged during different periods. Around 2070 BC, the Xia Dynasty was founded, which was both the first dynasty and the earliest slavery state power in China. The Shang Dynasty, which succeeded the Xia Dynasty, was a great power in the world at that time. It existed for over 500 years, and left a great deal of exceedingly precious historical materials and artifacts such as inscriptions on bones, tortoise shells and bronze wares. During the Western Zhou Dynasty, the system of enfeoffment was adopted that resulted in many contesting feudal lords, and China entered the stage of a feudal society. It was also a period of immense changes in the history of China. The enormous societal changes sparked cultural prosperity, creating an environment in which many contending schools of thought emerged, including such great thinkers as Confucius, Laozi and Mozi. The state of Qin vanquished its six rivals and unified China in 221 BC. But misconduct and tyranny doomed the regime, and it was soon thereafter replaced by the Han Dynasty.
汉武帝开拓了南方和西南疆域,使越族以及西南各少数民族和汉族更好地融合在一起。汉朝时期,中华帝国的版图迅速扩大。汉朝的强大,使中原人不再被称为“秦人”,而被通称“汉人”“汉族”了。
Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty expanded the southern and southwestern territories of China, facilitating the better integration between the Han people and the ancient Yue ethnic groups and other ethnic minorities in southwest China. The territory of the Chinese empire rapidly expanded during the Han Dynasty. Because of the mightiness of the Han Dynasty, inhabitants in the middle of China were no longer referred to simply as"people from Qin"; instead, they began to be accepted as"Han Ren"(the Han people) or"Han Zu"(the Han Ethnic Group).
后来,中国进入三国、两晋、南北朝,共360 多年的内战纷争时期。6 世纪至10 世纪,中华大地上出现了全国大统一的隋(Suí)唐王朝。隋唐时期,经济空前繁荣,对外交往频繁,科技文化成就辉煌灿烂。唐都长安,不仅是当时的政治中心,而且是亚洲各国经济文化交流的中心之一。唐朝在国际上的影响巨大而深远,因此国外称中国人为“唐人”。直到现在,海外华裔(yì)聚居的地方还被称为“唐人街”。
In the ensuing centuries, China entered the period of the Three Kingdoms, the Two Jin Dynasties, and the Southern and Northern Dynasties, which was a turbulent time of civil wars lasting more than 360 years. From the sixth to tenth centuries, two unifying dynasties, namely the Sui Dynasty and the Tang Dynasty, emerged in China. The Sui and Tang dynasties featured an unprecedentedly prosperous economy, frequent diplomatic contacts, and brilliant scientific, technological and cultural progress. Chang'an, the capital city of the Tang Dynasty, was not only the political center of China, but also the economic and cultural exchanges center for Asian countries at that time. Because of the enormous international influence of the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese people were called "Tang Ren" (Chinese people) abroad. Even today, the compact communities of Chinese people overseas are still called "Tang Ren Jie" (Chinatown).
唐后期,国势衰微,中国出现五代十国局面。960 年,后周(951—960)大将赵匡胤(Zhào Kuānɡyìn)发动陈桥兵变,建立宋朝(960—1279)。1271 年,蒙古人忽必烈改国号为元,建立了元朝。1276 年元军攻占杭州,1279 年消灭了南宋残余势力,统一了中国。1368 年,朱元璋的军队攻占北京,元朝灭亡。这一时期,中国的经济、文化在世界上继续处于领先地位。北宋商品经济发达,科技水平高超,出现了世界上最早的纸币,火药兵器广泛使用,罗盘针(指南针)用于航海,发明了活字印刷。这些都极大地推动了世界历史的进步。
The Tang Dynasty was weakened in its late period, and China subsequently fell into the situation of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. In 960, Zhao Kuangyin, a senior general of the Later Zhou Dynasty (951-960), led an army mutiny at Chenqiao and established the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Kublai, a Mongolian khan, established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271, led his troops to seize Hangzhou in 1276, and annihilated the remnant strength of the Southern Song Dynasty before reunifying China in 1279. In 1368, Zhu Yuanzhang's troops captured Beijing, which symbolized the fall of the Yuan Dynasty. During this period, China continued to hold a leading position in the fields of economy and culture in the world. The Northern Song Dynasty had a well-developed commodity economy as well as high-level science and technology. For example, it had the earliest paper notes in the world, widely employed gunpowder and early thermal weapons, used the compass in seafaring, and invented movable type printing. All these inventions greatly promoted the world's progress.
14 世纪至19 世纪,是中国封建社会逐渐走向衰落的明清时期。明朝时,统一的多民族国家进一步发展。明朝前期经济发展,社会繁荣,郑和多次出使西洋各国,促进了中外友好交往。清朝的康熙(Kānɡxī)、雍正(Yōnɡzhènɡ)和乾隆(Qiánlónɡ)时期,也出现了繁荣的盛世。
The 14th to 19th centuries covered the period of the Ming and Qing dynasties, wherein the feudal society of China gradually declined. The unified multinational country further developed during the Ming Dynasty. In the early Ming Dynasty, the economy developed and the society prospered. Particularly, Zheng He went on several missions to Western countries and improved friendly contacts between China and foreign lands. Additionally, the Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong reigns of the Qing Dynasty witnessed prosperity as well.
这一时期,世界历史进展迅猛,14、15 世纪,欧洲地中海沿岸一些城市出现了资本主义萌芽。17、18 世纪,英、美、法三国先后发生资产阶级革命,西方先进国家已经进入工业革命的成熟阶段,资本主义发展迅速。相比之下,中国却未能同步发展。虽然中国于明朝中后期产生了资本主义萌芽,但由于封建制度的束缚,生产力发展受到严重阻碍,商品经济发展艰难,封建社会由盛而衰。随着中国社会发展的逐步落后和西方殖民主义侵略势力的到来,中国封建统治者对外部世界的态度,逐渐由开放转向闭关锁国,同西方国家的差距迅速拉大。直到1840 年英国对中国发动鸦片战争,中国开始进入半殖民地半封建社会。中国古代历史翻开新的一页,开始进入近代历史篇章。
During this period, the world advanced rapidly as capitalism germinated in some European coastal cities along the Mediterranean Sea in the 14th and 15th centuries. In the 17th and 18th centuries, bourgeois revolutions successively took place in Britain, America and France; advanced countries in the West entered the maturing stage of their Industrial Revolution; capitalism developed rapidly. In comparison, China did not evolve synchronously. It is a fact that capitalism had begun to germinate during the middle and late Ming Dynasty in China, but due to the restraint of feudalism, the development of productivity was seriously hindered. As a result, the commodity-based economy developed sluggishly, and feudal society began to decline. With the lagging social development of China and the arrival of aggressive forces of Western colonists, the feudal rulers of China changed their attitudes towards the outside world, gradually turning from an open door policy to a closed-door bent. The disparity between China and the Western countries rapidly increased. In 1840, Britain waged the Opium War against China, symbolizing China's transition into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. An old leaf of the ancient history of China was turned over, and the chapter of modern times thus began.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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