商鞅变法

商鞅变法
Shang Yang's Reform


公元前361 年,秦国的新国君秦孝公即位。他下决心要使秦国强大起来,于是下了一道命令,说谁能使秦国强大,就封谁做官。
In 361 BC, Duke Xiao came to the throne of the State of Qin. Determined to make Qin a powerful state, he set about looking for men of talent, promising official position to anyone who could make Qin powerful.
商鞅(Yānɡ)原来是卫国人,听到这个消息,就来到了秦国。商鞅和秦孝公谈论国家大事,一连谈了几天几夜。秦孝公非常赞同商鞅的主张。公元前356 年,秦孝公任用商鞅,开始改革旧的制度。
Shang Yang, a native of the State of Wei, came to the state of Qin on hearing the news. Discussing the state affairs with Shang Yang for successive days, Duke Xiao could not agree any more with Shang Yang's proposal. In 356 BC, Shang Yang was given the task of reforming Qin's institutions.
商鞅起草了一个改革的法令,但又怕老百姓不相信他,就叫人在都城的南门外竖了一根很高的木头,并说,谁能把木头搬到北门,就赏谁十金。很多人都认为这是开玩笑。商鞅知道老百姓不相信他,就把赏金提高到五十金。人们在木头旁议论纷纷,终于有一个人把木头扛起来,一直扛到了北门。结果商鞅真的赏给那人五十金。这件事在秦国引起了轰动,商鞅说到做到,在老百姓中有了威信,于是商鞅就把新法令公布了出去。这就是著名的“南门立木”的故事。
Shang Yang envisioned a novel way to win the confidence of the population, so that the people of Qin would back his reform. He had a log placed near the south gate of the capital of Qin, and announced that he would give 10 units of money to anyone who carried the log to the north gate. When nobody took up the offer, Shang Yang raised the reward to 50 units of money. Finally a man shouldered the log, and carried it to the north gate. Shang Yang was true to his word, and handed over 50 units of money to the man. Sure of the confidence of the people of Qin, Shang Yang proclaimed new decrees to set about a suit of reforms. This famous story is known as"Erecting a Log at the Southern Gate."
商鞅变法的主要内容有:国家承认土地私有,允许自由买卖。生产粮食布帛(bó)多的人可以免除徭役(yáo yì)。在战争中军功越大,授予的爵(jué)位越高,赐给的土地和房子也越多。旧贵族没有军功,就不能享受特权。在全国设置31 个县,由国君直接派官吏管理。
Shang Yang's reforms mainly included the permitted private ownership of, and transactions in, land, the exemption from corvee labor for producers of large amounts of crops or cloth, and the lavish rewards (such as higher rank, more lands and more houses) for people of military distinction. Former aristocrats could not enjoy any privilege without military distinction. The whole state was divided into 31 counties, which were supervised by officials directly appointed by the Duke.
新法令刚刚开始推行,就遭到了旧贵族的强烈反对。太子的两个老师鼓动太子反对变法,商鞅就处罚了那两位老师,一个割掉了鼻子,一个在脸上刺了字。这样,大家就再也不敢反对新法令了。
Members of the aristocracy of Qin strongly opposed those new decrees soon after they were implemented. Two tutors of the heirapparent of Qin prompted the latter to stand out against the reform. Shang Yang punished them both, having the nose of one of them cut off and the face of the other tattooed. Consequently, nobody dared to criticize the reform again.
经过商鞅变法,秦国的经济得到了发展,军队战斗力得到了加强,成为战国后期最强大的国家。
Owing to Shang Yang's reform, Qin built a buoyant economy and gained greater military strength, becoming the most powerful state in the late Warring States Period.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
Dibaca 293x
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