《孙子兵法》

世界第一部兵书
《孙子兵法》
Sun Zi's Art of War
The World's First Treatise on Military Science


《孙子兵法》又称《孙子》,是中国古代著名的兵书,也是世界上现存最早的军事著作,作者是春秋末期杰出的军事家孙武。
The Sun Zi's Art of War , also named Sun Zi , is a famous book of military science in ancient China, and the earliest work of military science extant in the world as well. Its author, Sun Wu, was an outstanding strategist of the late Spring and Autumn Period.
孙武是齐国人,后来搬到吴国。那时候,各诸侯国为了争夺霸主的地位,不断发动战争,社会动荡不安。孙武居住在吴国时,各国的战争吸引他去思考并总结战争的规律。经过艰苦的努力,他终于完成了兵书的写作。
Sun Wu was a native of the State of Qi, and later moved to the State of Wu. At that time, all vassal states waged constant wars for hegemony, and the society fell into turbulence. When he lived in the State of Wu, Sun Wu thought deeply the wars among the states and summarized the regular pattern. Through his arduous effort, he finally finished The Sun Zi's Art of War.
孙武将兵书献给了吴王阖闾。吴王任命孙武为大将,让他训练吴国军队。他纪律严明,练兵认真。在他的帮助下,吴国成为春秋时期的一个军事强国。
Sun Wu presented his book to the ruler He Lü of Wu, who appointed him as a senior general, and entrusted him with the drill of the army of Wu. Sun Wu was a strict commander, earnest in drilling the Wu army. With his help, the State of Wu became a major military power in the Spring and Autumn Period.
《孙子兵法》现存13 篇,共6000 多字。在这不长的篇幅中,孙武全面论述了对战争的看法。他强调战争中要对敌我双方的情况调查清楚,提出了 “知彼知己, 百战不殆(dài)” ( 了解敌人, 了解自己, 无论打多少仗都不会危险),“攻其不备, 出其不意” (在敌人没有防备时进攻,在敌人意想不到的地方下手),以及集中优势兵力打败敌人等思想。孙武特别强调“非危不战” (不到危急的时候,不要发动战争), 因为打仗会大大加重人民负担。
The Sun Zi's Art of War consists of 13 chapters, amounting to more than 6,000 characters. In this limited space, Sun Wu expounded his wide-ranging views on wars. He emphasized the importance of "knowing yourself and knowing your enemy," "attacking the enemy unexpectedly" and concentrating a superior force to thoroughly defeat the enemy. Sun Wu especially stressed the importance of using war only as a last resort, because war was a grievous burden on the people.
战国时期的军事家孙膑,比孙武晚100 多年,他继承了孙武的军事思想,写有《孙膑兵法》。
More than 100 years later, during the Warring States Period, strategist Sun Bin inherited Sun Wu's military theory, and wrote Sun Bin's Art of War.
《孙子兵法》已被译为英、法、日、德、俄、捷等多种文字,这本书虽然讲的是战争规律,但对政治、外交、商战、体育等领域也有启示意义,因此在世界上享有很高的声誉。
The Sun Zi's Art of War has been translated into English, French, Japanese, German, Russian, Czech and other languages. Because it is deemed applicable to many of life's problems beyond warfare, and it enjoys high international prestige.
Sumber:《中国历史常识》
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