武王伐纣

武王伐纣
King Wu's Attack Against King Zhou


商是黄河中下游的一个古老的部落,商的祖先叫契(Xiè)。商部落早期经常迁徙(qiān xǐ),自契至汤13 世,迁了8 次。汤居亳(Bó),灭夏,建立商朝。汤之后又迁了5 次,最后盘庚(Pán'ɡēnɡ)定居于殷(今河南安阳西北)。之后,商朝出现复兴的局面。
Shang was an ancient tribe located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River, and its first ancestor was called Xie. The Shang tribe often migrated in its early stage, moving a total of eight times in 13 generations from Xie to Tang. Tang settled down in Bo and overthrew the Xia to establish the Shang Dynasty. Shang moved five times after Tang, and finally Pan'geng settled down in Yin (northwest of today's Anyang in Henan Province). The Shang Dynasty then underwent a revival.
商朝后期政治混乱,最后一个王是纣(Zhòu)王。他只知道自己享乐,根本不管人民的死活,是个残暴的君主。
The Shang Dynasty fell into political disorder in its later period. Its last monarch was King Zhou, a tyrant who disregarded the people's subsistence while indulging in his own sensuous pleasures.
商纣王在首都北边的沙丘饲养各地送来的珍禽异兽,在首都的南边修建鹿台,用来存放无数的珍宝财物。他还造了“酒池”,里面装满了美酒;还造了“肉林”,里面挂满了香喷喷的肉。纣王每天和妃子、大臣们在“酒池”“肉林”中嬉戏游乐。他修建的巨大的仓库里,装满了从全国各地掠夺来的粮食。他还发明了许多残酷的刑罚,其中一种叫“炮烙(páo luò)之刑”,就是把涂满膏脂的空心铜柱放在燃烧的炭火上烧红,强迫犯人赤脚在上面行走,犯人站不住,就掉在炭火中被活活烧死。
King Zhou had various birds and beasts raised in Shaqiu, north of the capital city, as tributes from across the country. He had a Lutai platform built south of the capital to preserve countless treasures. Moreover, he had"ponds of drink"dug to be filled with fine wines, as well as"forests of meat" to store his abundant supply of meat. King Zhou got enjoyment from his "ponds of drink" and "forests of meat" along with his concubines and ministers every day. He had huge storages built, which were filled with grains looted from every corner of the country. He also invented many brutal methods of punishment, one of which was "paoluo ," in which victims were forced to walk on a greased bronze pole placed above burning charcoal, only to fall into the fire and be burnt to death when they slipped.
商纣王不听任何人的劝说,他的叔叔比干因为向他提意见而被挖心处死。另一个大臣劝他说,这样将会有亡国丧命的危险。商纣王却回答说,他的性命是上天保佑的,谁也不能把他怎么样。
King Zhou of the Shang Dynasty refused to hear any dissuasion. He executed his uncle by digging out the latter's heart for his remonstration. Another minister admonished King Zhou that the latter's wrongdoings would endanger both his regime and life, but the latter replied that his life was blessed by Heaven and that nobody could do him any harm.
那时,渭水流域的周国,发展迅速。周原来是商的属国。周文王一心要治理好自己的国家,重视农业生产,待人宽厚,重用人才。吕尚(俗称姜太公)就是他发现的。吕尚帮助周文王整顿政治和军事,对内发展生产,使人民安居乐业;对外征服各部族,不断扩大疆土,周的势力逐步强大。
In the meantime, a vassal kingdom of the Shang Dynasty called Zhou (a different Chinese character from that used as the name of King Zhou) was growing powerful in the Weishui River valley. The king of Zhou, named Wen, was an able and enlightened administrator, who valued agriculture, made good use of talents and showed generosity to his people. Assisted by his competent prime minister Lü Shang (commonly known as Jiang Taigong) both in political and military affairs, King Wen encouraged his people to live and work in peace by impelling domestic production, and meanwhile constantly expanded his territory by conquering other tribes. As a result, Zhou became increasingly wealthy and powerful.
公元前11 世纪中期,周文王死后,他的儿子继位,这就是周武王。周武王得到吕尚和叔旦(即周公旦)的帮助,国家兴盛。这时,商朝的统治更加腐朽。周武王联合西方和南方的部落,进攻商纣王。双方在牧野(今河南省境内)大战。商朝的军队大部分是奴隶,他们平时恨透了纣王,不但不抵抗,还纷纷起义,引导周军进入商朝的首都。商纣王自焚(fén)而死。商朝灭亡了。周武王得到各个部落和各个小国家的拥护,于公元前1046 年建立了周朝,定都镐京(今陕西西安),历史上称为“西周”。
In the mid-11th century BC, King Wen died, and his son King Wu came to the throne. The new ruler received assistance from Lü Shang and his own younger brother, Duke Zhou, and his state hence thrived. During King Wu's reign, the politics of the Shang Dynasty became even worse. King Wu united other tribes in the west and the south, leading an alliance of tribes against the tottering Shang Dynasty. Both sides confronted each other at Muye (in today's Henan Province) to stage a decisive battle. The army of the Shang Dynasty was mainly conscripted slaves, who had been very hostile to King Zhou. They not only refused to resist King Wu's troops, but staged revolts and guided the troops of King Wu into the capital city of the Shang Dynasty. King Zhou immolated himself to death, and the Shang Dynasty thus perished. With support from all tribes and vassal states, King Wu founded the Zhou Dynasty in 1046 BC, and settled his capital in Haojing (southwest of today's Xi'an, Shaanxi Province). This new power is known as the Western Zhou Dynasty.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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