西周分封

西周分封
The Vassal Enfeoffment System of the Western Zhou Dynasty


周灭商后,为了有效地对被征服地区和人民实行统治,周王根据与其血缘关系的亲疏、功劳的大小开始进行大规模的分封。把王室子弟、功臣和先代的贵族分封到各地做诸侯,并把土地、平民和奴隶分给他们,建立诸侯国。周王分封的重要诸侯国有:鲁、齐、燕、卫、宋、晋等。诸侯必须服从周天子的命令,向天子缴纳贡品,平时镇守疆土,战时带领军队跟随天子作战。
After the destruction of the Shang Dynasty by the Zhou Dynasty, kings of the Zhou Dynasty began to divide its territory and grant the establishment of vassal states in a grand fashion in accordance with kinship and military glories, so that they could effectively rule the conquered areas and people therein. They authorized the descendents of the Zhou royal house, the meritorious ministers in the revolt and the aristocrats of the previous dynasties to be vassals in fiefs, distributing lands, commoners and slaves to them to facilitate the establishment of vassal states. The important vassal states accredited by the kings of the Zhou Dynasty included Lu, Qi, Yan, Wei, Song, and Jin. The vassals were required to obey orders of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty who were also the son of Heavea, and pay tributes to them. They were responsible for defending the territories at peacetime and leading armies to fight in wars under the command of the Son of Heaven.
周王朝分封诸侯国之后,上古长期存在的“部落”自此逐渐消失,为封国所代替。在西周时代,除了中央直接分封各路诸侯外,各诸侯在自己领地内再分。诸侯一般将中心地区留给自己直接统治,其余土地再分封给其嫡长子以外的亲属——卿大夫,此类封地称为“采邑”。卿大夫也将自己分得的采邑再分割给其嫡长子以外的亲属——士,称作“禄田”。于是,全国就形成了一个以周王室为中心,向四周辐射,由四周拱卫的、统一的、等级分明的宗法分封政治结构。
After the Zhou Dynasty granted the establishment of vassal states, the long-standing "tribes" of remote antiquity gradually disappeared, and were superseded by feudal states. During the Western Zhou Dynasty, each vassal could subdivide their fiefs that they received from the Central Government. Vassals usually kept central areas for themselves to exercise direct governance, and subdivided and conferred the rest of their fiefs to relatives, with the exception of the people of primogeniture (who were supposed to inherit both the central territories and principal feudal title). Such granted relatives were known as qingdafu, and such further granted lands were called "caiyi." Qingdafu could distribute the caiyi that they themselves had received to their own relatives except for their own sons of primogeniture. The conferred relatives at this level were known as shi, and granted lands were called "Lutian". Henceforth, a patriarchal structure of feudal politics was formed all over the country, centering on the royal family of the Zhou Dynasty and featuring a unified and distinct social hierarchy.
西周通过分封制,强化了中央控制能力,一些大诸侯不断向周围的夷、戎、狄等少数民族用兵,进而兼并其土地,拓展了疆域,加速了各民族融合的进程,使西周成为一个强盛的国家。
By means of its feudal system, the Western Zhou Dynasty strengthened the central government's control over vassals, and some powerful vassals waged constant wars against nearby ethnic minorities to annex their lands. This enlarged the territories of the Zhou Dynasty while accelerating the integration of all ethnic groups, making the Western Dynasty a powerful country.
到了春秋时期,大诸侯国为争夺土地、人口及对其他诸侯国的支配权,不断进行兼并战争,形成了诸侯争霸的局面,周王室日益衰微,分封制开始崩溃。秦统一后,建立郡县制,分封制结束。
By the Spring and Autumn Period, large vassal states constantly launched wars to take lands, populations and hegemony over other vassal states, resulting in a situation in which all vassals contested for hegemony. Consequently, the royal house of the Zhou Dynasty declined day by day as the Vassal Enfeoffment System began to break down. After the Qin Dynasty re-unified the country and established a prefecture-county system, the enfeoffment system came to an end.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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