诸子百家

诸子百家
The “Hundred Schools of Thought” and Their Exponents


春秋战国时期,是中国历史上大变革的时代。社会大变革促进了文化的繁荣。这一时期,出现了老子、庄子、孔子、孟子、荀子、墨子、韩非子等大思想家,他们从不同的立场和角度出发,对当时的社会发表自己的意见,并逐步形成以道家、儒家、墨家和法家等为主的众多派别,在中国历史上被称为“诸子百家”。诸子百家纷纷著书立说,宣传自己的主张,批评别人的观点,互相辩论,形成了学术上的繁荣局面,这就是“百家争鸣”。
Great social changes took place during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, spurring cultural development. In these periods, there appeared many great thinkers, such as Lao Zi, Zhuang Zi, Confucius, Mencius, Xun Zi, Mo Zi and Han Fei Zi. They stated their views on society from different stances and angles, and gradually formed schools of philosophy represented mainly by Taoists, Confucians, Mohists and Legalists. These numerous schools and their representatives came to be known as the "Hundred Schools of Thoughts and Their Exponents." They wrote books to expound their theories, publicized their propositions and criticized other viewpoints in a period when "one hundred schools of thought contended."
老子是道家学派的创始人,著有《道德经》一书。他认为,各种事物都有对立面,如 “福” 和 “祸” 、 “有” 和 “无” 、“生” 和 “灭” 、 “贵” 和 “贱” 、 “上” 和 “下” 、 “强” 和 “弱” 等都是对立的双方,它们之间会相互转化。
Lao Zi was the founder of the Taoist School, and the author of the Dao De Jing (The Classic of the Way and Virtue). He deemed that all things have their opposites; for example, fortune and misfortune, existence and non-existence, life and death, nobility and baseness, high and low, strong and weak are all pairs of opposite aspects of a greater unity and can be transformed into each other.
墨子开创了墨家学派,主张节约,反对浪费,主张选举品德高尚、有才能的人来做官,并要求人们相互友爱,反对战争。
Mo Zi initiated the Mohist School. He encouraged economic activity and opposed waste. He advocated choosing noble-minded and talented people to hold offices. And he called on people to love each other and eschew wars.
法家最重要的代表人物是韩非,著有《韩非子》一书。他主张“法治”,认为法律应当向全国公布,臣民应该严格遵守;强调用严厉的刑罚来镇压人民的反抗。他提倡改革,提出建立君主专制的中央集权的国家。他的思想后来被秦始皇采用。
The most important representative of the Legalist School was Han Fei Zi, who wrote The Book of Han Fei Zi . He advocated ruling the country by means of strictly enforced laws. He was in favor of a centralized autocratic monarchy, stressing to suppress the people's revolts through severe penal punishments. His theories were later adopted by Emperor Qinshihuang.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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