中国境内最早的人类

中国境内最早的人类
The Earliest Human Beings in China

中国是世界文明古国,也是人类的发源地之一。中国是目前为止世界上发现远古人类遗址最多的国家,其中重要的有元谋人、蓝田人、北京人、山顶洞人等。
China not only boasts an ancient civilization, butitisalso one of birth places of the human race. So far, China ranks first in the number of human fossils and cultural sites dating from the Paleolithic Period, which reveal traces of Yuanmou Man, Lantian Man, Peking Man and Upper Cave Man.
元谋人
Yuanmou Man
1965 年,在云南省元谋县,考古人员发现了两颗远古人类的牙齿和一些粗糙的石器。
In 1965, archeologists discovered the remains of two ancient human teeth and some rough stone tools in Yuanmou County, Yunnan Province.
经科学家鉴定,这是远古人类的遗骨、遗物,距今大约170 万年。在元谋发现的远古人类我们称为元谋人。元谋人是中国境内目前发现的最早的人类。
Further examination confirmed that the findings belonged to ancient human's osseous remains and relic, dating back some 1,700,000 years. The ancient human discovered in Yuanmou was referred to as Yuanmou Man, the earliest human found in China thus far.
北京人
Peking Man
1929 年,在北京西南周口店龙骨山山洞里发现了一个完整的远古人类的头盖骨,后来在这个遗址中又先后发现了5个头盖骨和其他骨骼化石。在这里发现的远古人类我们称为北京人。北京人生活的时间距今约70 万年至20 万年,他们保留了猿的某些特征,但已经能够使用工具劳动。北京人把石块敲打成粗糙的石器,还把树枝砍成木棒,用来采集植物,捕捉动物,加工食物。北京人已经会使用天然火。火的使用是人类进化过程中一个很大的进步。
In 1929, a complete human skull was found in a cave on Mount Longgu in Zhoukoudian in southwest Beijing. Later, five more human skulls and other fossil bones were uncovered there. The human beings whose remains were found in these relics are referred to as Peking Man, who lived around 700,000 to 200,000 years ago. Peking Man still had some ape-like characteristics, but he had mastered the arts of making and using tools. He chipped stones into rough implements and chopped tree branches into sticks to gather vegetation, hunt animals and process food. He had also learned to use natural fire, marking a milestone of human evolution.
1987 年12 月,发现北京人头盖骨的周口店北京猿人遗址被联合国教科文组织列入世界遗产名录。
The Zhoukoudian Peking Man Ruins, where the skulls of Peking Man were found, was entered into the world heritage list by the UNESCO in December 1987.
山顶洞人
Upper Cave Man
1930 年,在北京西南周口店龙骨山顶部的山洞里,发现了距今约3 万年的人类遗骨,我们把他们称为山顶洞人。山顶洞人的模样和现代人基本一样。
In 1930, human bones dating from about 30,000 years ago were found in caves near the top of Mount Longgu in Zhoukoudian, Beijing. We called them Upper Cave Man. Upper Cave Man's appearance was almost identical to that of modern man.
山顶洞人用的还是打制石器,但有的制作很精细。他们已经懂得磨制和钻孔技术,会制造骨针等骨器,会用骨针缝制兽皮衣服,还会用有钻孔的兽骨、兽牙、石珠、海蚶(hān)壳做装饰品。他们已懂得人工取火,靠采集植物、打猎、捕鱼得到食物。
Upper Cave Man also used chipped stone tools, some of which were exquisitely made, and the tools show that he had already mastered grinding and drilling techniques. He made bone needles to sew animal skins into clothing, and used animal bones and teeth, stone beads and shells as ornaments. He had mastered the skill of making fire, and got food from gathering vegetation, hunting and fishing.
山顶洞人按母亲的血缘关系组成氏族。同一氏族的成员居住在一起,共同劳动,共同分配食物。
The Upper Cave people formed matriarchal clans according, to the mothers blood relationship. Members of the same clan lived together, worked together and shared their food together.
Sumber: 《中国历史常识》
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